• This medium was originally described by Slanetz and Bartley(1) for the enumeration of enterococci from water samples using membrane filtration. The medium has also become useful as a direct plating medium. Tryptose and yeast extract provide the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate. The di-potassium hydrogen phosphate acts as a buffer. Selectivity is achieved through the addition of sodium azide which is used to suppress the growth of Gram-negative organisms. The medium contains tetrazolium chloride, which is reduced by enterococci to the insoluble red dye formazan resulting in dark red colonies of enterococci on the agar. It should be noted that this reaction is not exclusive to enterococci and colonies should be confirmed by additional testing e.g. aesculin hydrolysis.
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  • This medium can be used as a screening method for the differentiation of enterobacteriaceae based on the ability of some species to utilise citrate as a sole source of carbon. It is often used as a screening test for Klebsiella pneumoniae (positive reaction) while Escherichia coli is negative. Species that metabolize citrate as their sole source of carbon and ammonium as the sole source of nitrogen cause an increase in alkalinity of the medium resulting in a colour change from green to blue due to the presence of the pH indicator bromthymole blue.
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  • Selenite cystine broth is a modification of selenite F broth and is for the selective enrichment of Salmonellae spp. from clinical, food and environmental specimens. The peptone acts as a nitrogen, carbon and vitamin source. Lactose is a fermentable carbohydrate and sodium phosphate is a buffer. L-cystine is used to enhance the recovery of Salmonellae spp. in low numbers. The medium is made selective by the addition of sodium biselenite (KM8021). Following overnight incubation subculture(s) are usually made on to one or more of the many selective enteric solid media.  
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  • Sabouraud liquid medium USP is used in sterility testing for the detection of moulds, yeasts and acidophilic microorganisms in pharmaceutical products. This medium is also used for non-sterile testing and for the determination of fungistatic activity. Sabouraud liquid medium USP conforms to the USP and Harmonised Pharmacopeia. The peptic digest of animal tissue and pancreatic digest of casein provides the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. The high concentration of dextrose is included as an energy source and in tandem with the acidic pH (5.6) facilitates the growth of fungi whilst providing limited selective properties.
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  • Peptone water is a general-purpose medium that supports thecultivation of non-fastidious organisms. This non-selective medium can be used a basal medium for biochemical tests such as carbohydrate fermentation and production of indole. Tryptone and peptone act as sources of carbon, nitrogen and vitamins in this medium and sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance.  
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  • Palcam agar is a selective differential medium for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food, clinical and environmental specimens. The Columbia peptone mix and starch provide the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate. Differentiation of Listeria spp. from enterococci and staphylococci occurs through aesculin hydrolysis and mannitol fermentation. Listeria monocytogenes will hydrolyse aesculin and the associated reaction with the ferric ammonium citrate gives rise to a brown/black precipitate around the colonies. Listeria spp. do not however ferment mannitol. Mannitol fermentation is seen through a colour change of the colony or the area around the colony from red to yellow due to the production of acidic end products. Phenol red is the pH indicator in the medium. Lithium chloride is included to inhibit enterococci. The associated Palcam selective supplement, LS0038, contains polymyxin B, acriflavine and ceftazidime to inhibit other Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms that may be present in specimens. Related Supplements : LS0038 PALCAM Selective Supplement
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  • A general-purpose medium for the cultivation of organisms that are less fastidious in their nutritional requirements. The beef extract, peptone and yeast extract act as carbon, nitrogen and vitamin sources in this medium. Sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance.  
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  • A basic general-purpose medium suitable for use in the cultivation of the less fastidious organisms particularly those that do not require the addition of blood or other enrichment. When used to prepare agar slopes or agar butts, the medium can be used to maintain control organisms. The peptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance.  
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