• Rappaport-Vassiliadis Soya Broth is used for the enrichment and selective isolation of Salmonella spp. This medium is a modification of the original formulation by Rappaport et al. and has been formulated to exploit the full characteristics of Salmonella spp. These characteristics include the ability to survive at relatively high osmotic pressure, to multiply at low pH values and greater resistance to malachite green. This formulation also has the correct amount of magnesium chloride as previous formulations did not take into account the volume of displacement caused by dissolving large amounts of magnesium chloride in water. This formulation has been shown to be superior to tetrathionate broth and selenite broth for the isolation of Salmonella spp. from meat products. Soya peptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate and di-potassium hydrogen phosphate act as buffers. Magnesium chloride raises the osmotic pressure in the medium. Malachite green is an inhibitory substance. NB: This formulation is very hygroscopic and will produce a slight exothermic reaction when mixed with water.  
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  • Malt extract agar is used for the detection, isolation and enumeration yeasts and moulds. The high carbohydrate content of the medium ensures rapid growth of yeasts and moulds. Malt extract and mycological peptone provide the carbon, protein and nutrient sources required by the organisms. The acidic nature of this medium allows for optimal growth of moulds and yeasts while restricting bacterial growth. Malt extract agar can also be used for the cultivation of fungi, although with the prolonged incubation necessary, cultures may become overgrown by bacteria. The selectivity of the medium can be increased by lowering the pH to 3.5-4.0 or by the addition of selective agents such as chloramphenicol. Related Supplements : LS0050 Chloramphenicol Selective Supplement
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  • This is a selective medium for the isolation of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. from clinical specimens and environmental samples. This formulation was developed by Hynes through a modification of Leifson’s DCA medium. The peptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Lactose is a fermentable carbohydrate and neutral red is a pH indicator. Sodium thiosulphate and ferric citrate are used to detect hydrogen sulphide production indicated by the black centred colonies of hydrogen sulphite positive organisms. Sodium desoxycholate and sodium citrate inhibit most Gram-positive organisms.
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  • Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) is a buffer solution used in biological research. It is a water-based salt solution containing sodium phosphate, sodium chloride and, in some formulations, it contains potassium chloride and potassium phosphate. The osmolality and ion concentrations of the solutions match those of the human body (isotonic) and are non-toxic to most cells. This balanced salt solution is issued to meet the requirements of those tissue culture workers who use the Dulbecco Solution with and without calcium and magnesium.
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  • DNase agar is used primarily in clinical laboratories to differentiate pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus from other staphylococci based on deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity. The tryptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The addition of DNA to the base medium provides a simple method to check for DNase activity. Following incubation of the inoculated medium, the surface of the medium is flooded with a small quantity of 1M hydrochloric acid to precipitate the DNA. This results in the medium turning opaque. Organisms that can produce sufficient quantity of a DNase enzyme will hydrolyse the DNA resulting in a clear area around the colonies. Whereas DNase negative organisms will not produce clearing. NB: As with most tests of this type a positive result should not be taken in isolation and other appropriate tests, e.g. coagulase test, latex agglutination etc., should be carried out.  
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  • Mycological agar is a selective medium for the isolation of pathogenic fungi, particularly dermatophytes, from clinical specimens. Enzymatic digest of soybean meal provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Glucose is an energy source for the metabolism of fungi. The addition of chloramphenicol further reduces the risk of bacterial contamination when processing material that may be heavily contaminated with coliforms. Cycloheximide should also be added (0.4g/L) to suppress the growth of commensal yeasts and saprophytic fungi.  
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  • Chromogenic coliform agar (CCA) conforms to the ISO 9308-1 guidelines for the detection, enumeration and isolation of coliforms and more specifically Escherichia coli in water samples by the membrane-filtration technique. The colonial differentiation is provided by the chromogenic substrates, Salmon-GAL and X-glucuronide. Salmon-GAL is used for the detection of ß-D-galactosidase enzymatic activity. X-glucuronide is used for the detection of ß-D-glucoronidase enzymatic activity. β-D-galactosidase, expressed by all coliforms, cleaves the Salmon-GAL substrate and producing red/pink coloured colonies. Unlike other coliforms, Escherichia coli cleaves both Salmon-GAL and X-glucuronide producing a violet/blue coloured colonies. Tryptophan is used to increase detection reliability by improving the indole reaction. The peptones, sodium pyruvate and sorbitol support bacterial growth and simple recovery of sub-lethal thermally injured coliforms. Sodium di-hydrogen phosphate and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate phosphate buffer the medium and sodium chloride is used to achieve osmotic balance. The selectivity is attained by the addition of Tergitol® 7 as it inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.
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  • Campylobacter Blood-Free Selective Medium (CCDA) is one of several media formulations available for the selective isolation of Campylobacter spp., primarily C. jejuni and C. coli. CCDA was described by Bolton et al. and formulated to replace blood with a combination of charcoal, ferrous sulphate, and sodium pyruvate. CCDA is recommended for food testing. CCDA with the addition of yeast extract and cefoperazone is used in the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from foodstuffs and swabs in the FDA/BAM method. This product complies with the requirements of ISO 10272-1:2006. Bolton et al. recommended incubating inoculated plates at 37°C to improve isolation rates but incubation at 41.5°C is recommended for the isolation of the commonly encountered thermophilic species (C. jejuni and C. coli). The meat peptone, beef extract and tryptone provide the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Bacteriological charcoal absorbs toxic compounds and metabolites. Ferrous sulphate and sodium pyruvate are oxygen scavengers. Sodium desoxycholate is a selective agent. Through the addition of campylobacter (Preston) supplement (LS0010), which consists of cefoperazone and amphotericin B, enteric flora is suppressed. Related Supplements : LS0010 Campylobacter (Preston) Selective Supplement
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