• This is a selective enrichment broth for the isolation of Salmonella spp. primarily from food and food product samples and conforms to the requirements ISO 6579:2002. It can however be used in other areas including clinical and environmental specimens. Salmonella spp. reduce tetrathionate and will proliferate in the medium whilst most other enteric organisms are inhibited. Unlike the older traditional tetrathionate broth the addition of novobiocin (40 mg/l) improves the inhibition of Proteus spp. Immediately prior to use it is necessary to add 20 ml/l of 2% iodine/iodide solution (BM0946). Once the iodine/iodide solution has been added the medium should be used immediately and cannot be stored for future use. NB: As this is an opaque medium, the turbidity of the broth alone cannot be used as an indication of growth. Related Supplements : LS0024 Novobiocin Supplement (20mgs/L)
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  • Plate Count Agar is formulated to the A.P.H.A. specification developed by Buchbinder et al. This medium is intended for use in food, dairy and water bacteriology to perform Total Viable Counts. Tryptone and yeast extract provide the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate.  
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  • Violet Red Bile Agar is a medium for the enumeration of coliform organisms in food and dairy products and conforms to American Public Health Association (APHA). Yeast extract and enzymatic digest of gelatin provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The medium is made selective by the inclusion of bile salts and crystal violet to inhibit Gram-positive and non-enteric organisms. Lactose is a fermentable carbohydrate and neutral red is a pH indicator. Lactose fermenters produce red/purple colonies often surrounded by a halo of the same colour. Non lactose fermenters produce pale colonies. Selectivity can be increased by incubation at 42-44ºC.  
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  • DNase agar is used primarily in clinical laboratories to differentiate pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus from other staphylococci based on deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity. The tryptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The addition of DNA to the base medium provides a simple method to check for DNase activity. The methyl green fades into a colourless compound if the DNA in the medium is depolymerised. Organisms that can produce sufficient quantity of a DNase enzyme will hydrolyse the DNA resulting in a clear area around the colonies. Whereas DNase negative organisms will not produce clearing. NB: As with most tests of this type a positive result should not be taken in isolation and other appropriate tests, e.g. coagulase test, latex agglutination etc., should be carried out.  
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  • Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar (VRBGA) is a selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in food products. It is a modification of the original Violet Red Bile Agar with the lactose being replaced with glucose. As all Enterobacteriaceae ferment glucose VRBGA allows for a wider range of organisms to be detected. This medium conforms to the requirements of the Harmonised USP/EP/JP. Yeast extract and pancreatic digest of gelatin provide the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate and neutral red is a pH indicator. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The medium is made selective by the inclusion of bile salts and crystal violet to inhibit Gram-positive and non-enteric organisms.
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  • Hoyle’s agar is selective culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae types. Hoyle’s agar allows for rapid growth of the organisms and normally 18 hours incubation should be sufficient for a diagnosis. As the medium is highly selective, inoculation should be by rubbing the swab (or other material) over the entire surface of the agar, there is no need to spread the inoculum with a loop indeed doing so can cause the organism to be missed especially when they are present only in small numbers. The Elek method can be used to determine the toxigenicity of any C. diptheriae strains. The beef extract and peptone act as a source of nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. The sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance. This medium should be used in conjunction with two supplements: lysed horse blood at 50 ml/l and 10ml/l of potassium tellurite 3.5% solution (BM2230). Lysed horse blood provides added nutrients to the medium and potassium tellurite inhibits Gram-negative and several Gram-positive microorganisms. Related Supplements : BM2290 3.5% Potassium Tellurite Solution, Horse Blood Lysed
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  • Developed by Leifson, selenite F broth is a medium for the selective enrichment of Salmonella spp. from both clinical and food samples. The peptone acts as a nitrogen, carbon and vitamin source. Lactose is a fermentable carbohydrate and sodium phosphate is a buffer. The medium is made selective by the addition of sodium biselenite (KM8021). Following overnight incubation subculture(s) are usually made on to one or more of the many selective enteric solid media.  
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  • Alkaline peptone water is generally used as an enrichment medium in the isolation of Vibrio spp. from faeces. This medium may also be used for the enrichment of Vibrio spp. from food and water samples. First developed by Shread, Donovan and Lee as an enrichment broth for the growth of Aeromonas spp., Cruickshank showed that with a higher pH the medium can be used for the enrichment of Vibrio spp. The peptone is the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The high pH of the medium inhibits most enteric organisms for at least 24 hours.
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