• Hoyle’s agar is selective culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae types. Hoyle’s agar allows for rapid growth of the organisms and normally 18 hours incubation should be sufficient for a diagnosis. As the medium is highly selective, inoculation should be by rubbing the swab (or other material) over the entire surface of the agar, there is no need to spread the inoculum with a loop indeed doing so can cause the organism to be missed especially when they are present only in small numbers. The Elek method can be used to determine the toxigenicity of any C. diptheriae strains. The beef extract and peptone act as a source of nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. The sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance. This medium should be used in conjunction with two supplements: lysed horse blood at 50 ml/l and 10ml/l of potassium tellurite 3.5% solution (BM2230). Lysed horse blood provides added nutrients to the medium and potassium tellurite inhibits Gram-negative and several Gram-positive microorganisms. Related Supplements : BM2290 3.5% Potassium Tellurite Solution, Horse Blood Lysed
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  • Developed by Leifson, selenite F broth is a medium for the selective enrichment of Salmonella spp. from both clinical and food samples. The peptone acts as a nitrogen, carbon and vitamin source. Lactose is a fermentable carbohydrate and sodium phosphate is a buffer. The medium is made selective by the addition of sodium biselenite (KM8021). Following overnight incubation subculture(s) are usually made on to one or more of the many selective enteric solid media.  
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  • Alkaline peptone water is generally used as an enrichment medium in the isolation of Vibrio spp. from faeces. This medium may also be used for the enrichment of Vibrio spp. from food and water samples. First developed by Shread, Donovan and Lee as an enrichment broth for the growth of Aeromonas spp., Cruickshank showed that with a higher pH the medium can be used for the enrichment of Vibrio spp. The peptone is the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The high pH of the medium inhibits most enteric organisms for at least 24 hours.
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  • Burkholderia cepacia agar base is a selective medium for the detection and isolation of Burkholderia cepacia from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This is an important opportunistic pathogen in CF patients and can lead to fatal infection in approximately 20% individuals that have been colonised with B. cepacia complex organisms. This medium is based on the PC medium described by Gilligan et al. Magnesium sulphate, ammonium sulphate and ferrous ammonium sulphate supports the growth of B. cepacia. Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate are buffering agents, used to maintain the pH the medium. The phenol red is used as a pH indicator. If the sodium pyruvate in the medium is metabolised by B. cepacia alkaline by-products are produced which raises the pH. This causes the colour of the medium to turn pink/red around sections of heavy growth on the medium. Bile salts and crystal violet are selective agents. The associated selective supplement for this medium, LS0125, contains ticarcillin and polymyxin B which further improves the selectivity, particularly with the inhibition of Pseudomonas spp. Related Supplements : LS0125 B.cepacia Selective Supplement, LS0026 Pseudomonas CFC Selective Supplement
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  • Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar is based on the formulation described by King et al. and is used for the selective isolation and enumeration of yeasts and moulds from food samples. The peptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate. Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate is a buffering agent and magnesium sulfate is a source of divalent ions and sulfate. In order to curtail the size of the colony diameters of spreading fungi, the antifungal agent dichloran is added to the base and the pH is reduced to 5.6. Rose Bengal suppresses growth of bacteria and restricts the size and height of colonies of more rapidly growing molds. The inclusion of chloramphenicol ensures the suppression of bacteria present in environmental and food samples. Rose Bengal is absorbed by yeast and mold colonies and this further aids in their enumeration. Occasionally reduced recovery of yeasts may be encountered due to the increased activity of Rose Bengal at pH 5.6.
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  • This is a selective medium for the isolation of Pseudomonas spp. primarily in food, water and environmental samples. Pseudomonas agar base is on Kings A medium which uses magnesium and potassium salts to enhance pigment production. The gelatine peptone and acid hydrolysed casein acts as a nitrogen, vitamins, and carbon source. Magnesium chloride and potassium sulphate promotes production of pyocyanin. The medium can be made selective for P. aeruginosa by the addition of Pseudomonas CN Supplement (LS0006). Alternatively, the medium can be made selective for Pseudomonas spp. generally by the addition of Pseudomonas CFC Selective Supplement (LS0026). The presence of blue/green or brown pigmentation or fluorescence is indicative of presumptive Pseudomonas spp. It should be noted however that further testing must be carried out to confirm the full identity of the organism.
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  • This medium is used for the cultivation and enumeration of Lactobacillus spp. MRS agar is based on the formulation by de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe. The peptone, yeast extract and beef extract provides the reuired carbon, nitrogen and vitamin source. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate. The magnesium sulphate and manganese sulphate act as growth stimulants. Potassium phosphate is a buffering agent. Selectivity of the medium is achieved through the use of ammonium citrate and sodium acetate, inhibiting microorganisms such as streptococci and moulds. The addition of the surfactant Tween 80 is required to facilitate the uptake of nutrients from Lactobacillus spp.  
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  • R2A agar is used for the enumeration and cultivation of bacteria from drinking water. R2A agar developed by Reasoner and Geldreich is a low nutrient medium that can used in pour plate, spread plate, and membrane filtration methods for heterotrophic plate counts. In combination with a lower incubation temperature and longer incubation period R2A agar stimulates the growth of stressed and chlorine-tolerant bacteria. Traditionally nutritionally rich media have been used for this purpose but these media support the growth of fast-growing bacteria and may suppress slow growing or stressed bacteria found in treated water. Enzymatic digest of casein, proteose peptone, acid hydrolysate of casein and yeast extract provide the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate. Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate is a buffering agent. Magnesium sulphate is a source of divalent cations and sulphate. Starch and sodium pyruvate aid in the recovery of stressed organisms.  
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