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  • Alkaline peptone water is generally used as an enrichment medium in the isolation of Vibrio spp. from faeces. This medium may also be used for the enrichment of Vibrio spp. from food and water samples. First developed by Shread, Donovan and Lee as an enrichment broth for the growth of Aeromonas spp., Cruickshank showed that with a higher pH the medium can be used for the enrichment of Vibrio spp. The peptone is the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The high pH of the medium inhibits most enteric organisms for at least 24 hours.
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  • Bile Aesculin Medium is generally used for the differentiation and presumptive identification of Group D streptococci (enterococci). Enterococci hydrolyse aesculin forming, amongst other products, aesculetin which in turn combines with Ferric ammonium citrate producing a dark brown or black complex. The presence of Bile salts in the medium inhibits gram positive organisms other than enterococci. The medium can also be used for the presumptive identification of certain organisms within the Enterobacteriaceae group such as Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., etc.
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  • Brucella broth is a non-selective medium for the cultivation of Brucella spp. and other fastidious microorganisms. Brucella broth has been developed from the APHA formulation for Albimi broth. (1&2) The enzymatic digest of casein, enzymatic digest of animal tissues and yeast extract provide the necessary carbon, nitrogen and vitamin sources for this medium. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate and sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance of the medium. Sodium bisulfite is added to enhance growth. References (1) Hausler, W. J. (ed.). 1976. Standard methods for the examination of dairy products, 14th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. (2) ISO 10272-1:2006. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs – Horizontal method for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp.
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  • Brucella Medium Base is a general purpose medium for the cultivation of Brucella spp. and other fastidious microorganisms. Brucella Medium Base has been developed from the APHA formulation for Albimi broth. The peptones act as carbon, nitrogen and vitamin source in this medium. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate and sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance of the medium.
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  • Cetrimide agar is a selective medium for the isolation and detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from pharmaceutical, clinical and cosmetic samples. The formulation is complaint with the requirements of the Harmonised USP/EP/JP. Detection is achieved using the unique ability of P. aeruginosa to produce the water soluble, bright green pigment pyocyanin. The production of this pigment is stimulated by the presence of magnesium chloride and di-potassium sulphate in the medium. The addition of glycerol (10ml/l) is required as this compound serves as an energy source. Cetrimide, a quaternary ammonium compound, is also present to suppress the growth of other Pseudomonas spp. as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Pancreatic digest of gelatin provides the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Related Supplements :
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  • Chromogenic coliform agar (CCA) conforms to the ISO 9308-1 guidelines for the detection, enumeration and isolation of coliforms and more specifically Escherichia coli in water samples by the membrane-filtration technique. The colonial differentiation is provided by the chromogenic substrates, Salmon-GAL and X-glucuronide. Salmon-GAL is used for the detection of ß-D-galactosidase enzymatic activity. X-glucuronide is used for the detection of ß-D-glucoronidase enzymatic activity. β-D-galactosidase, expressed by all coliforms, cleaves the Salmon-GAL substrate and producing red/pink coloured colonies. Unlike other coliforms, Escherichia coli cleaves both Salmon-GAL and X-glucuronide producing a violet/blue coloured colonies. Tryptophan is used to increase detection reliability by improving the indole reaction. The peptones, sodium pyruvate and sorbitol support bacterial growth and simple recovery of sub-lethal thermally injured coliforms. Sodium di-hydrogen phosphate and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate phosphate buffer the medium and sodium chloride is used to achieve osmotic balance. The selectivity is attained by the addition of Tergitol® 7 as it inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.
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  • Clostridium difficile agar, when supplemented, is used for the isolation of C. difficile from samples. This formulation is a modification of CCFA (Cycloserine-Cefoxitin-Fructose agar) developed by George et al. The proteose peptone act as carbon, nitrogen and vitamin source in this medium. Fructose is a fermentable carbohydrate. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance of the medium. Disodium hydrogen phosphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate are buffering agents. The magnesium sulfate acts as a source of inorganic ions and the agar is the solidifying agent. This media requires the addition of defibrinated horse blood and Clostridium difficile selective supplement (LS0022).
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  • KM0001

    Columbia Agar

    Columbia agar is a general-purpose, non-selective medium capable of supporting the growth of most micro-organisms based on the original Columbia agar formulation described by Ellner et al. from Columbia University. With further enrichment using blood, most fastidious organisms can be isolated and their β-haemolytic reactions can be determined in order to aid identification. The peptone is the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Starch increases growth of Neisseria spp., and enhances the haemolytic reactions of some streptococci. This medium is relatively free of reducing sugars, which have been reported to adversely influence the haemolytic reactions of β-haemolytic streptococci . Supplementation of the base medium with blood (5- 10%) will provide additional growth factors for fastidious microorganisms, and aids in determining haemolytic reactions. It should be noted that the haemolytic patterns of isolates may vary with the source of animal blood and the type of basal medium used. Related Supplements : Defibrinated Horse Blood, Defibrinated Sheep Blood, Horse Blood Lysed, LS0008 Staph/Strep Selective Supplement, LS0017 Neomycin Selective Supplement, LS0022 Clostridium difficle Selective SupplementLS0012 Bacitracin Selective Supplement, LS0011 Campylobacter Growth Supplement, LS0009 Campylobacter (Skirrow) Selective Supplement
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  • KM0053

    DNase Agar

    DNase agar is used primarily in clinical laboratories to differentiate pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus from other staphylococci based on deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity. The tryptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. The addition of DNA to the base medium provides a simple method to check for DNase activity. Following incubation of the inoculated medium, the surface of the medium is flooded with a small quantity of 1M hydrochloric acid to precipitate the DNA. This results in the medium turning opaque. Organisms that can produce sufficient quantity of a DNase enzyme will hydrolyse the DNA resulting in a clear area around the colonies. Whereas DNase negative organisms will not produce clearing. NB: As with most tests of this type a positive result should not be taken in isolation and other appropriate tests, e.g. coagulase test, latex agglutination etc., should be carried out.  
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  • Letheen agar modified is intended for use in the isolation of microorganisms from cosmetics. The casein peptone, meat peptone, beef extract and yeast extract act as carbon, nitrogen and vitamin sources in this medium. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance of the medium. The sodium bisulfite, lecithin and polysorbate 80 inactivates quaternary ammonium compounds. Polysorbate 80 neutralises phenols, formalin, hexachlorophene, and in combination with the lecithin, ethanol.
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  • KM0206

    Letheen Broth

    Letheen broth when prepared with polysorbate 80 is used for the testing of quaternary ammonium compounds for antimicrobial activity. Letheen broth is recommended by the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). (1) The enzymatic digest of animal tissue and beef extract act as carbon, nitrogen and vitamin sources in this medium. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance of the medium. Lecithin inactivates quaternary ammonium compounds. Polysorbate 80 must be added to the medium prior to sterilisation. Polysorbate 80 neutralises phenols, formalin, hexachlorophene, and in combination with the lecithin, ethanol. REFERENCE (1) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1995. Official methods of analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C
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  • Letheen broth modified is intended for use in the isolation of microorganisms from cosmetics. The enzymatic digest of animal tissue, enzymatic digest of casein, yeast extract and beef extract act as carbon, nitrogen and vitamin sources in this medium. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance of the medium. The sodium bisulfite and lecithin inactivates quaternary ammonium compounds. Polysorbate 80 must be added to the medium prior to sterilisation. Polysorbate 80 neutralises phenols, formalin, hexachlorophene, and in combination with the lecithin, ethanol.
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  • Long and Hammer agar is for the detection of aerobic microorganisms in fish and fish products. This media is recommended for the determination of spoilage organisms in fresh and lightly preserved seafoods. (1) The proteose peptone acts as a nitrogen, carbon and vitamin source. Gelatine is a protein source and solidifying agent. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance and di-potassium hydrogen phosphate is a buffer. 1) Nordic Committee on Food Analysis. (2006) Aerobic count and specific spoilage organisms in fish and fish products. NMKL Method No 184
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  • LB agar (Lennox) is used for the cultivation and maintenance of recombinant strains of Escherichia coli and is based on the formulation stated by Lennox. This medium is typically used in molecular biology procedures such as the detection of phage or plasmid transformed bacteria. LB agar (Lennox) is prepared using 5 g/L of sodium chloride and this level varies from that described by Miller. This allows for additional sodium chloride to be added at the point of preparation if required. Enzymatic digest of casein provides the required nitrogen and carbon for organism growth. Vitamin B complex required by recombinant strains of E. coli are supplied by the yeast extract. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance and provides sodium ions for membrane transport. Related Supplements : LS0035 Ampicillin Selective Supplement, LS0037 Kanamycin Selective Supplement
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  • Luria Bertani (LB) agar (Miller) is used for the cultivation and maintenance of recombinant strains of Escherichia coli and is based on the formulation stated by Miller. This medium is typically used in molecular biology procedures such as the detection of phage or plasmid transformed bacteria. LB agar (Miller) is prepared using 10 g/L of sodium chloride and this level varies from that described by Lennox. Enzymatic digest of casein provides the required nitrogen and carbon for organism growth. Vitamin B complex required by recombinant strains of E. coli are supplied by the yeast extract. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance and provides sodium ions for membrane transport. Related Supplements : LS0035 Ampicillin Selective Supplement, LS0037 Kanamycin Selective Supplement
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  • Luria Bertani (LB) broth is used for the cultivation and maintenance of recombinant strains of Escherichia coli for molecular biology procedures. LB broth (Lennox) contains half of the amount of sodium chloride found in LB broth (Miller). Enzymatic digest of casein provides the required nitrogen and carbon. Vitamin B complex required by recombinant strains of Escherichia coli are supplied by yeast extract. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance and provides sodium ions for membrane transport.
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  • Luria Bertani (LB) broth is used for the cultivation and maintenance of recombinant strains of Escherichia coli for molecular biology procedures.(1) Enzymatic digest of casein provides the required nitrogen and carbon. Vitamin B complex required by recombinant strains of Escherichia coli are supplied by yeast extract. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance and provides sodium ions for membrane transport.
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  • KM0062

    Marine Agar

    Marine agar is a medium used to support the growth of numerous marine bacteria. Originally formulation by ZoBell (1), its high saline levels are to simulate a close approximation of seawater which allows the marine bacteria to grow (2). The sodium chloride and marine minerals provide the high salinity needed for marine bacteria to thrive and aims to simulate sea water. The peptones provide the necessary nitrogen, amino acids and vitamins for growth. Agar is the solidifying agent. References (1) ZoBell, C.E. 1941. Studies on Marine Bacteria. I. The cultural requirements of heterotrophic aerobes. J. Mar. Res. 4, 42-75. (2) Lyman, J. and Fleming, R. H. 1940. Composition of Seawater. J. Mar. Res. 3, 134-146
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  • Mycological agar is a selective medium for the isolation of pathogenic fungi, particularly dermatophytes, from clinical specimens. Enzymatic digest of soybean meal provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Glucose is an energy source for the metabolism of fungi. The addition of chloramphenicol further reduces the risk of bacterial contamination when processing material that may be heavily contaminated with coliforms. Cycloheximide should also be added (0.4g/L) to suppress the growth of commensal yeasts and saprophytic fungi.  
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  • KM0141

    Nutrient Agar

    A basic general-purpose medium suitable for use in the cultivation of the less fastidious organisms particularly those that do not require the addition of blood or other enrichment. When used to prepare agar slopes or agar butts, the medium can be used to maintain control organisms. The peptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance.  
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  • A general-purpose medium for the cultivation of organisms that are less fastidious in their nutritional requirements. The beef extract, peptone and yeast extract act as carbon, nitrogen and vitamin sources in this medium. Sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance.  
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  • Nutrient Broth No.2 is used for the cultivation of fastidious pathogens and other microorganisms. This general use medium, rich in nutrients, allows the growth of bacteria when there is a low level of cells. The medium is particularly suitable as a secondary growth medium for staphylococci to be tested for coagulase production and also be used for sterility testing of aerobic organisms. Beef extract and peptone provide the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance.  
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  • Recent developments in culture media have given rise to the use of chromogenic substrates as a means of differentiating bacteria particularly among the coliform group of organisms. This is one such medium and has been developed with the aim of simplifying the differentiation and presumptive identification of the main organisms usually found in Urinary Tract Infections (UTI). The peptone is the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Based on the traditional CLED medium, to prevent the swarming of Proteus spp., two chromogens are present in the medium. One allows the detection of enterococci giving rise to blue colonies whilst the second results in purple colonies of E. coli. Phenylalanine and tryptophan are also included as indicators of tryptophan deaminase activity producing brown colonies of Proteus spp. Related Supplements : SHS500 Sterile Horse Serum 500ml
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  • Sabouraud Dextrose Agar is one of several media available for theisolation of yeasts and fungi suitable for use in all areas of mycology. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar is a modification of a medium originally described by Sabouraud. The tryptone and meat peptone provide the nitrogen and vitamins required for organism growth in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The high concentration of dextrose is included as an energy source and in tandem with the acidic pH (5.6) facilitates the growth of fungi whilst providing limited selective properties. Higher levels of selectivity can be achieved against bacterial species by the addition of chloramphenicol. NB: This is a basic medium only and contains no additional supplements. Related Supplements : LS0050 Chloramphenicol Selective Supplement
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  • Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol is a selective media for the isolation of yeasts and fungi suitable for use in all areas of mycology. Sabouraud dextrose agar is a modification of a medium originally described by Sabouraud.(1) The tryptone and meat peptone provides the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. The high concentration of dextrose is included as an energy source and in tandem with the acidic pH (5.6) facilitates the growth of fungi whilst providing limited selective properties.(2) Chloramphenicol is included to increase the selectivity of the media inhibiting a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. References (1) Sabouraud, R. 1892. Ann. Dermatol. Syphilol. 3:1061. (2) Jarett, L., and A. C. Sonnenwirth (eds.). 1980. Gradwohl’s and parasitic infections, 7th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
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  • Sabouraud liquid medium USP is used in sterility testing for the detection of moulds, yeasts and acidophilic microorganisms in pharmaceutical products. This medium is also used for non-sterile testing and for the determination of fungistatic activity. Sabouraud liquid medium USP conforms to the USP and Harmonised Pharmacopeia. The peptic digest of animal tissue and pancreatic digest of casein provides the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. The high concentration of dextrose is included as an energy source and in tandem with the acidic pH (5.6) facilitates the growth of fungi whilst providing limited selective properties.
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  • Recent developments in culture media have given rise to the use of chromogenic substrates as a means of differentiating bacteria particularly among the coliform group of organisms. This is one such medium and has been developed as a selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of Escherichia coli without the need for membranes or pre-incubation. Based on the formulation of Tryptone Bile Agar it incorporates a chromogenic substrate, X-Glucuronide, to detect the ß-glucuronidase enzyme which is specific for the majority of E. coli strains. Approximately, 3-4% of E. coli are glucuronidase negative including E. coli O157.(1) The advantage of the chromogenic substrate is that the reaction is concentrated within the colony resulting in distinctive blue/green colonies of E. coli while the other coliforms produce cream colonies. The tryptone provides the required carbon, nitrogen and vitamins. Bile salts No.3 is a selective agent against Gram-positive bacteria. X-glucuronide is a chromogenic substrate. Agar is solidifying agent.
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  • Yeast extract agar is a nutrient rich medium for the cultivation of non-fastidious bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Recommended for the plate count of microorganisms in water and dairy products. The yeast extract and peptone acts as a source of nitrogen, amino acids, carbon and vitamins. Related Supplements : LS0019 Oxytetracycline Selective Supplement
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