• This medium was first introduced by MacConkey in 1905 for the isolation and differentiation of lactose and non-lactose fermenting enteric bacteria containing swarming strains of Proteus spp. MacConkey agar without salt and crystal violet is a differential medium that restricts swarming of Proteus spp. as sodium chloride is omitted from the medium to provide an electrolyte deficient medium. The omission of crystal violet permits the growth of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The peptone is the nitrogen, carbon and vitamin source in this medium. Lactose is the fermentable carbohydrate. Lactose fermentation causes a local pH drop around the colonies which will react with the pH indicator, neutral red, and hence aids in differentiation. Bile salts act as the selective agent. Related Supplements : LS0189 Cefotaxime Supplement (1mg/L)
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  • Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar is used for the isolation and detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp. Developed by Taylor, xylose lysine agar base was used for isolating and differentiating Gram-negative enteric bacilli. The addition of sodium thiosulfate, ferric ammonium citrate, and sodium deoxycholate created the more selective medium, XLD agar. This medium was found to be satisfactory for the isolation of Shigella and Providencia spp., as well as proving to be an effective differential media. The yeast extract is the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Lactose, sucrose and xylose are fermentable carbohydrates. Sodium deoxycholate, sodium thiosulphate and ferric ammonium citrate are selective agents. Phenol red acts as a pH indicator. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance. Most enteric bacteria including Salmonella spp., can ferment xylose to produce acid. Shigella spp. are unable to do this and thus the colonies remain red. Once xylose has been completely utilized Salmonella spp. will decarboxylate lysine resulting in a pH increase to alkaline. Salmonella and Shigella spp. are differentiated as Salmonellae spp. are able to metabolise thiosulphate producing hydrogen sulphide resulting in colonies with black centres. Stool specimens or rectal swabs may be plated directly onto XLD agar. Selective enrichment broths, such as Selenite Broth or Tetrathionate Broth, may be used prior to streaking. For specific procedures refer to appropriate references.  
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  • Legionella agar was designed for the isolation of Legionella spp. and is used primarily in water and environmental laboratories. Since Legionella spp. are fastidious organisms, the medium contains yeast extract as a source of nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Charcoal is also included to neutralise growth-inhibiting substances and agar is the solidifying agent. The medium requires supplementation with ferric pyrophosphate as a source of iron, L-cysteine, an essential amino acid for the growth of Legionella spp. and α-ketoglutaric acid, which acts as a growth stimulant. ACES buffer/potassium hydroxide is also added to maintain the optimal pH of 6.9 for growth of Legionella spp. Omission of the L-cysteine produces a confirmation medium that can be used to test presumptive Legionella spp. as isolates will not be able to grow. Selective versions of the medium can also be created by the addition of various selective agents. GVPC is the most popular for water testing and BMPA for clinical testing. Related Supplements : LS7044 Legionella BCYE Supplement, LS7045 BCYE without Cysteine
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  • GC Agar when used with blood and other enrichment is for the isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae but is also capable of supporting the growth of most fastidious micro-organisms. This medium is based on the modified formulation described by Thayer and Martin that was based on the original formulation stated by Johnson. Enrichment is usually attained using lysed blood but haemoglobin powder or chocolated blood are suitable alternatives. Additional enrichment can be provided by the addition of Suplex supplement (BM0478) which consists of yeast extract and glucose. Selective variants of GC Agar can be prepared through the addition of various selective supplements such as VCAT (LS0002) or LCAT (LS0001). These supplements will suppress most of the background flora likely to be present in specimen and will restrict the swarming of Proteus spp. The peptone is the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance in the medium. Starch is present to absorb toxic metabolites and phosphate buffers prevent pH changes during incubation. Related Supplements : BM0478 Suplex, LS0001 GC LCAT Selective Supplement, LS0002 GC VCAT Selective Supplement
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  • A general purpose and nutritious medium for the non-selective enrichment of non-fastidious and some fastidious organisms. Tryptone and soy peptone are the nitrogen and vitamin source in the medium. Glucose is the carbon energy source that facilitates organism growth and sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance. Di-potassium hydrogen phosphate is a buffering agent to prevent auto-sterilisation due to acid production during the growth of some organisms. Tryptone Soya Broth is also commonly referred to as Soybean-Casein Digest Medium or Tryptic Soya Broth and is abbreviated as TSB. TSB conforms to the Harmonized United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), European Pharmacopoeia (EU), and Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP).  
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  • This is a selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of yeasts and moulds in dairy products. It is in according to a typical formulation of The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). Yeast extract acts as a source of nitrogen, carbon and vitamins in this medium. Glucose is a fermentable carbohydrate. Although the medium has a low pH it is made more selective by the inclusion of chloramphenicol, an antibiotic selective agent.  
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  • Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA) is a general-purpose, non-selective medium capable of supporting the growth of most micro-organisms. This medium meets the requirements of the Harmonised USP/EP/JP and is based on the original formulation described by Leavitt et al. in 1955. TSA is commonly referred to as Soybean-Casein Digest Agar. TSA supplemented with lecithin and Tween 80® is widely used in environmental monitoring. With further enrichment using 5-10% sheep or horse blood, most fastidious organisms can be isolated and their haemolytic reactions can be determined in order to aid identification. It should be noted that the haemolytic patterns of isolates may vary with the source of animal blood and the type of basal medium used. The tryptone and soy peptone are the source of the required nitrogen, carbon and vitamins. Sodium chloride maintains the osmotic balance in the medium. Related Supplements : Defibrinated Sheep Blood, Defibrinated Horse Blood
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  • MacConkey agar No. 3 is a selective medium primarily for the isolation of Enterobacteriacae from waters and sewage. This media differs from the original MacConkey formulation in that as well as bile salts, crystal violet has been included as an additional selective agent. This has the effect of inhibiting Gram-positive organisms. The peptone acts as a nitrogen, carbon and vitamin source. Sodium chloride maintains osmotic balance. Lactose is a carbohydrate and during its fermentation causes a confined pH drop around the bacterial colony. This causes a colour change in the pH indicator, neutral red and bile precipitation.  
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